Friday, April 28, 2017

Balinese Temple

A Pura is a Balinese Hindu temple.[1] and the place of worship for the adherents of Balinese Hinduism in Indonesia. Puras are built in accordance to rules, style, guidance and rituals found in Balinese architecture. Most of the puras are found on the island of Bali, as Hinduism is the predominant religion in the island; however many puras exist in other parts of Indonesia where there are significant numbers of Balinese people. Mother Temple of Besakih is the most important, the largest and holiest temple in Bali.[2] A large number of puras have been built in Bali, leading it to be titled "the Island of a Thousand Puras".

Contents  [hide]
1 Etymology
2 Design and layout
2.1 Gates
3 Types of pura
4 Sad Kahyangan
5 Sea Temples
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 External links

The pagoda-like Pelinggih Meru shrine of Pura Ulun Danu Bratan is a distinctive feature of a Balinese temple.
The term pura originates from the Sanskrit word (-pur, -puri, -pura, -puram, -pore), meaning "city", "walled city", "towered city", or "palace". During the development of the Balinese language the term pura came to refer to a religious temple complex, while the term puri came to refer to palace, the residence of kings and nobles, similar to Javanese kratons.

Design and layout[edit]

Balinese temple layout, arranged in three zones (mandalas)
Unlike the common towering indoor Indian Hindu temple, puras are designed as an open air place of worship within enclosed walls, connected with a series of intricately decorated gates between its compounds. This walled compounds contains several shrines, meru (towers), and bale (pavilions). The design, plan and layout of the pura follows the trimandala concept of Balinese space allocation.[3] Three mandala zones arranged according to a sacred hierarchy:

Nista mandala (jaba pisan): the outer zone, which directly connects the pura compound with the outer realm, and the entrance to the temple. This zone usually takes the form of an open field or a garden that can be used for religious dance performances, or act as an additional space for preparations during religious festivals.
Madya mandala (jaba tengah): the middle zone of the temple, where the activity of adherents takes place, and also the location for supporting facilities of the temple. In this zone usually several pavilions are built, such as the bale kulkul (wooden Slit drum tower), bale gong (gamelan pavilion), wantilan (meeting pavilion), bale pesandekan, and bale perantenan, the temple's kitchen.
Utama mandala (jero): the holiest and the most sacred zone within the pura. This enclosed and typically highest of the compounds usually contains a padmasana, the towering lotus throne of the highest god, Acintya (the Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa, or "All-in-one God", in modern Balinese), the pelinggih meru (a multi-tiered tower-shrine), and several pavilions, such as bale pawedan (vedic chanting pavilion), bale piyasan, bale pepelik (offering pavilion), bale panggungan, bale murda, and gedong penyimpenan (storehouse of the temple's relics).
However, the layout rules for arrangements the facilities of the two outer zones, nista mandala and madya mandala, are somewhat flexible. Several structures, such as the bale kulkul, could be built as outer corner tower; also, the perantenan (temple's kitchen) could be located in the Nista mandala.


Stairs and terraces leading to the candi bentar split gate of Pura Besakih.

Towering kori agung gate at Pura Taman Saraswati Ubud.

Pura Taman Ayun
There are two types of gates within Balinese architecture: the split gate, known as candi bentar,[4] and the roofed tower gate known as paduraksa or kori agung. Both types of gates have specific roles in Balinese architectural design. Candi bentar is the gate used in the nista mandala, while the kori agung is employed as the gate between the madya mandala and Utama mandala inner compounds. The rules for gate types are also valid for non-religious compounds such as puri, nobles' and kings' residences.

Types of pura[edit]
There are several types of pura, each serving certain functions of Balinese rituals throughout the Balinese calendar. The Balinese temples are arranged according to the physical and spiritual realm of Balinese people, which corresponds to kaja-kelod sacred axis, from mountain tops the realms of gods, hyang spirits, the middle fertile plain the realm of humans, all the way to the beach and ocean, the realm of sea deities and demons.

Pura kahyangan jagad: pura that are located in the mountainous region of the island, built upon mountain or volcano slopes. The mountains are considered as the sacred realm, the abode of gods or hyang. The most important pura kahyangan in Bali is Mother Temple of Besakih complex on the slopes of Mount Agung.
Pura tirta: "water temples", a type of pura that other than religious function, also have water management function as part of Subak irrigation system. The priests in these temples have authority to manage the water allocation among rice paddies in the villages surrounds the temple. Some tirta temples are noted for its sacred water and having petirtaan or sacred bathing pool for cleansing ritual. Other water temple are built within lakes, such as Pura Ulun Danu Bratan. The example of this type of temple are Pura Taman Ayun and Pura Tirta Empul.
Pura desa: a type of pura dedicated to the worship of Brahma, that are located within villages or cities, serving as the center of Balinese people's religious activities.
Pura puseh: a type of pura dedicated to the worship of Vishnu.
Pura dalem: a type of pura dedicated to the worship of Shiva. Usually Shiva's shakti, Durga, is venerated in this temple. In human life cycle, the temple is connected to rituals concerning death.
Pura mrajapati: a type of pura to worship prajapati (the lord of people) or the cosmic might. Most often, in this temple Shiva is worshipped in his form as prajapati. Often describes as the temple of the dead, this type of temple often functioned as the graveyard of the deceased prior to ngaben (cremation) ceremony.
Pura segara: pura that are located by the sea to appease the sea deities. It is usually important during the Melasti ritual. The example of this type of temple is Pura Tanah Lot and Pura Uluwatu.
Sad Kahyangan[edit]
The Sad Kahyangan, Sad Kahyangan Jagad or the "six sanctuaries of the world" are the six holiest places of worship on Bali.[5] According to Balinese beliefs, they are the pivotal points of the island, and are meant to provide spiritual balance to Bali. The number of these most sacred sanctuaries always adds up six, but depending on the region, the specific temples that are listed may vary.[6] A list of the Sad Kahyangan may include:

Pura Besakih in Karangasem, the "mother temple" of Bali and almost always included
Pura Lempuyang Luhur in Karangasem
Pura Goa Lawah in Klungkung
Pura Luhur Uluwatu in Badung
Pura Luhur Batukaru in Tabanan
Pura Pusering Jagat (Pura Puser Tasik) in Gianyar
Pura Yeh Jeruk in Gianyar
Pura Pekendungan near Tanah Lot in Tabanan
Pura Sakenan on Serangan island
Pura Tirta Empul in Tampaksiring
Pura Penataran Sasih in Pejeng
Pura Dasar in Gelgel
Pura Kehen in Bangli
Sea Temples[edit]

Pura Tanah Lot
Bali has a number of important "sea temples" (Balinese: pura segara) which were founded in the 16th century by a Majapahit Brahmin from Java named Nirartha to honour the gods of the sea.[7] Each of the temples is traditionally said to be visible from the next, forming a 'chain' around the coast of Bali. Many of the most important sea temples are located along the south-west coast of the island. The temples' positions was meant to provides a chain of spiritual protection for the Bali island.

Listed counterclockwise from Nirartha's legendary point of arrival in Bali, some of the most prominent Balinese sea temples include:

Pura Pulaki near Pemuteran, northeast of Gilimanuk (8°8′44″S 114°40′50″E).
Pura Gede Perancak, to the south of Negara (8°24′5″S 114°36′40″E).
Pura Rambut Siwi, to the east of Negara (8°24′11″S 114°45′59″E)
At this site Nirartha is said[by whom?] to have made a gift of a lock of his hair, which was worshipped. Rambut Siwi translates as 'worship of the hair'[8] and the tale is reminiscent of the Buddhist story of Gautama giving eight hairs to Tapussa and Bhallika, which are now enshrined at Shwedagon.
Pura Tanah Lot, west of Canggu and south of Tabanan city where two puras were built on a coastal rock overlooking the Indian Ocean as the shrine to honor sea deities. (8°37′16″S 115°5′12″E).
Pura Luhur Uluwatu, at the southwestern extremity of the Bukit Peninsula (8°49′44″S 115°5′7″E). This is the only Balinese sea temple that is also one of the six Balinese directional temples.
Pura Mas Suka, at the southern tip of the Bukit Peninsula, near Greenbowl Beach (8°50′52″S 115°10′11″E).
Pura Sakenan on Serangan island, an island between Tanjung Benoa and Sanur (8°43′31″S 115°13′47″E).

Balinese Culture

Balinese architecture is a vernacular architecture tradition of Balinese people that inhabits volcanic island of Bali, Indonesia. The Balinese architecture is a centuries-old architectural tradition influenced by Balinese culture developed from Hindu influences through ancient Javanese intermediary, as well as pre-Hindu elements of native Balinese architecture.[1]

Today, contemporary Balinese style is known as one of the most popular Asian tropical architecture,[2] due largely to the growth of the tourism industry in Bali that has created demand for Balinese-style houses, cottages, villas and hotels. Contemporary Balinese architecture combines traditional aesthetic principles, island's abundance of natural materials, famous artistry and craftmanship of its people, as well as international architecture influences, new techniques and trends.

Contents  [hide]
1 Materials
2 Philosophy
3 Religious architecture
4 Domestic architecture
5 Landscape architecture
6 Elements of Balinese architecture
7 Modern Balinese architecture
8 See also
9 Notes
10 References

Interior with a painted "barba" depicting an epic Hindu legend
Traditional Balinese buildings seek to be in harmony with the environment. Traditional Balinese houses are built almost entirely of organic materials.[2] They use natural materials such as thatch roofing, bamboo poles, woven bamboo, coconut wood, teak wood, brick and stone. The thatched roof usually uses ijuk (black aren fibers), dried coconut or rumbia leaves, or sirap (hard wood shingles arranged like tiles) roof.[3] Stones and red bricks are usually used as foundation and walls, while sandstone and andesite stone are usually carved as ornamentation.

Balinese people are known for their artistry. They have developed a sophisticated sculpting tradition that manifests in architecture rich with ornamentation and interior decoration. Balinese temples and palaces are exquisitely decorated with rich ornamentations, both wooden and stone sculpting, which usually depict floral patterns. Balinese sculpture often served as gate guardians as twin dvarapalas flanking entrances. The gates itself are richly decorated with kala's head, floral ornaments, and vajra or ratna pinnacles. Other types of sculpture are often served as ornamentation, such as goddess or dragon waterspouts in bathing places.


Pura Ulun Danu Bratan in harmony with Bratan lake environment.

Balinese temple layout, arranged in three zones (mandalas)
Balinese architecture is developed from Balinese ways of life, their spatial organization, their communal-based social relationships, as well as philosophy and spirituality influenced its design; much owed to Balinese Hinduism. The common theme often occur in Balinese design is the tripartite divisions.[2]

Traditional Balinese architecture, adheres to strict and sacred laws of building, allowing lots of open space and consisting of a spacious courtyard with many small pavilions, ringed by wall to keep out evil spirits and decorated with guardian statues.[4] The philosophical and conceptual basis underlining development of Balinese traditional architecture includes several concepts such as:[5]

Tri Hita Karana: the concept of harmony and balance consists of three elements; atma (human), angga (nature), and khaya (gods). Tri Hita Karana prescribe three ways that a human beings must strive to nurture harmonious relationship with; fellow human beings, nature, and God.
Tri Mandala: the rules of space division and zoning. Tri Mandala is spatial concept describing three parts of realms, from Nista Mandala — the outer and lower mundane less-sacred realm, Madya Mandala — the intermediate middle realm, to Utama Mandala — the inner and higher most important sacred realm.
Sanga Mandala: also the rules of space division and zoning. The Sanga Mandala is the spatial concept concerning with directions that divide an area into nine parts according to eight main cardinal directions and central (zenith). These nine cardinal directions is connected to Hindu concept of Guardians of the directions, Dewata Nawa Sanga or nine guardian gods of directions that appear in Majapahit emblem Surya Majapahit. They are; Center: Shiva, East: Isvara, West: Mahadeva, North: Vishnu, South: Brahma, Northeast: Sambhu, Northwest: Sangkara, Southeast: Mahesora, and Southwest: Rudra.
Tri Angga: the conception of hierarchy from microcosm, middle realm, and macrocosm. It is also connected to the next concept tri loka.[2]
Tri Loka: also the conception of hierarchy between three realms bhur (Sanskrit:bhurloka) lower realm of animals and demons, bhuwah (Sanskrit:bhuvarloka) middle realm of human, and swah (Sanskrit:svarloka) upper realms of gods and deities.
Asta Kosala Kosali: the eight guidelines for architectural designs, which includes the shapes of niyasa (symbols) in pelinggih (shrine), pepalih (stages), its measurement units, shapes and size, also dictate appropriate decorations.
Arga Segara or Kaja Kelod: the sacred axis between. arga or kaja (mountain) and segara or kelod (sea). Mountain region are considered as parahyangan, the abode of hyang or gods, middle plain in between are the realm of human, and the sea as the realm of sea monster and demons.
Other than artistic and technical mastery, all Balinese architect (Balinese:Undagi) are required to master these Balinese philosophical concepts concerning form, architecture, and spatial organization.

Religious architecture[edit]
Main article: Balinese temple

Mother temple Besakih.
Balinese temple or pura (Sanskrit for:"walled city") are designed as an open air place of worship within enclosed walls, connected with a series of intricately decorated gates between its compounds. This walled compounds contains several shrines, meru (towers), and bale (pavilions). The design, plan and layout of the pura follows the Tri Mandala concept of Balinese space allocation.[6] The three mandala zones are Nista Mandala (jaba pisan): the outer zone, Madya Mandala (jaba tengah): the middle zone, and Utama Mandala (jero): the holiest and the most sacred zone.

Balinese temple usually contains a padmasana, the towering lotus throne of the highest god, Acintya (Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa in modern Balinese), the pelinggih meru, (a multiple roofed tower similar in design to the Chinese or Japanese pagoda), and various pavilions, including bale pawedan (vedic chanting pavilion), bale piyasan, bale pepelik (offering pavilion), bale panggungan, bale murda, and gedong penyimpenan (storehouse of the temple's relics).

Domestic architecture[edit]
Main article: Balinese traditional house

A Balé pavilion within Balinese house compound.
Unlike European architecture, Balinese houses and puri (palaces) are not created as a single huge building, but rather a collection of numerous structures within walled enclosure each with a special functions; such as front open pavilion to receive guests, main bedroom, other bedrooms, pelinggihan or pemrajan is a small family shrine, living areas and kitchen. Kitchen and living areas that helds everyday mundane activities are usually separated from family shrine. Most of these pavilions are created in Balinese balé architecture, a thatched roof structure with or without walls similar to Javanese pendopo. The walled enclosure are connected with series of gates. Balinese architecture recognize two types of gates, the candi bentar split gate, and paduraksa or kori roofed gates.

In Balinese palace architecture, its size are bigger, the ornamentation is richer and more elaborately decorated than common Balinese houses. The balé gede is a pavilion of 12 columns, where the oldest male of the family sleeps, while wantilan is a rectangular wall-less public building, where people convene or hold cockfighting. The bale kulkul is an elevated towering structure, topped with small pavilion where the kulkul (Balinese slit drum) is placed. The kulkul would be sounded as the alarm during village, city or palace emergency, or a sign to congregate villagers. In Balinese villages there is a bale banjar, a communal public building where the villagers congregate.

Landscape architecture[edit]

Tirta Gangga water garden.

Tirta Empul sacred bathing place.
Balinese gardens are usually created in a natural tropical style filled with tropical decorative plants in harmony with the environment. The garden is usually designed according to natural topography and hardly altered from its natural state. Some water gardens however are laid out in a formal design, with ponds and fountains, such as Taman Ayun and Tirta Gangga water garden. Bale kambang, which literary means "floating pavilion", is a pavilion surrounded with ponds usually filled with water lilies. Petirtaan is a bathing place, consisting of a series of ponds and fountains used for recreation as well as for ritual purification bathing. The examples of petirtaan is bathing structure in Goa Gajah and Tirta Empul.

Elements of Balinese architecture[edit]

Candi bentar split gate as the entrance from outer realm.

Bale kulkul, a slit drum tower.

Guardian statues held symbolic meanings also part of decoration in Balinese architecture.

Roofed kori agung gate at the Bali Pavilion of Taman Mini Indonesia Indah.

Kala's face as portal guardian and decoration that also contain symbolic meanings.

The pagoda-like multi-tiered roof Meru towers, a typical aspect in Pura.

Pelinggih shrines dedicated to certain gods.

Stana shrines dedicated to Hindu god Ganesha.

Sanggah kemulan, pemrajan or merajan, small familial house shrines to honor the households' ancestor.

Padmasana, the towering throne of Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa as the focus of worship.

A temple building with multi-tiered roof.

A gold-colored roof pinnacle and thatched roof made of black ijuk fibers.

Meticulously carved column, beam and ceiling as the decoration.

Winged lion as a decoration of the roof interior.

Bale gong, a gamelan pavilion in Balinese temple compound.

Fountain waterspout statues in Goa Gajah sacred bathing pool.

Lotus pond as part of Balinese landscape architecture.

Bale kambang, floating pavilion in Balinese garden.

Bale bengong, garden contemplating pavilion.
Modern Balinese architecture[edit]

Indonesia Museum in TMII built in Balinese architecture
The prominence of Bali as a popular island resort with cultural significance has stimulated the demand of modern Balinese architecture applied for tourism-related buildings. Numbers of hotels, villas, cottages, restaurants, shops, museums and airports have incorporated Balinese themes, style and design in their architecture.

See also[edit]

Culture Of Indonesia

The culture of Indonesia has been shaped by long interaction between original indigenous customs and multiple foreign influences. Indonesia is centrally-located along ancient trading routes between the Far East, South Asia and the Middle East, resulting in many cultural practices being strongly influenced by a multitude of religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Islam and Christianity, all strong in the major trading cities. The result is a complex cultural mixture very different from the original indigenous cultures.

Examples of the fusion of Islam with Hindu in Javanese Abangan belief, the fusion of Hinduism, Buddhism and animism in Bodha, and the fusion of Hinduism and animism in Kaharingan; others could be cited. Balinese dances have stories about ancient Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms, while Islamic art forms and architecture are present in Sumatra, especially in the Minangkabau and Aceh regions. Traditional art, music and sport are combined in a martial art form called Pencak Silat.

The Western world has influenced Indonesia in science, technology and modern entertainment such as television shows, film and music, as well as political system and issues. India has notably influenced Indonesian songs and movies. A popular type of song is the Indian-rhythmical dangdut, which is often mixed with Arab and Malay folk music.

Despite the influences of foreign culture, some remote Indonesian regions still preserve uniquely indigenous culture. Indigenous ethnic groups Mentawai, Asmat, Dani, Dayak, Toraja and many others are still practising their ethnic rituals, customs and wearing traditional clothes.

Contents  [hide]
1 Traditional performing arts
1.1 Music
1.2 Dance
1.3 Drama and theatre
1.4 Martial arts
2 Traditional visual arts
2.1 Painting
2.2 Sculpture
3 Architecture
4 Crafts
5 Literature
5.1 Poetry
6 Recreation and sports
7 Cuisine
8 Popular media
8.1 Cinema
8.2 Television
8.3 Radio
9 Religion and philosophy
10 Celebrations
11 See also
12 References
13 Further reading
Traditional performing arts[edit]
Main article: Music of Indonesia

Gamelan player, Yogyakarta
Indonesia is home to with those from the islands of Java, Sumatra and Bali being frequently recorded. The traditional music of central and East Java and Bali is the gamelan.

On 29 June 1965, Koes Plus, a leading Indonesian pop group in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, was imprisoned in Glodok, West Jakarta, for playing Western-style music. After the resignation of President Sukarno, the law was rescinded, and in the 1970s the Glodok prison was dismantled and replaced with a large shopping mall.

Kroncong is a musical genre that uses guitars and ukulele as the main musical instruments. This genre had its roots in Portugal and was introduced by Portuguese traders in the 15th century. There is a traditional Keroncong Tugu music group in North Jakarta and other traditional Keroncong music groups in Maluku, with strong Portuguese influences. This music genre was popular in the first half of the 20th century; a contemporary form of Kroncong is called Pop Kroncong.

Angklung musical orchestra, native of West Java, received international recognition as UNESCO has listed the traditional West Java musical instrument made from bamboo in the list of intangible cultural heritage.[1][2]

The soft Sasando music from the province of East Nusa Tenggara in West Timor is completely different. Sasando uses an instrument made from a split leaf of the Lontar palm (Borassus flabellifer), which bears some resemblance to a harp.

Main article: Dance in Indonesia

Minangkabau Tari Piring (plate dance)
Indonesian dance reflects the diversity of culture from ethnic groups that composed the nation of Indonesia. Austronesian roots and Melanesian tribal dance forms are visible, and influences ranging from neighbouring Asian countries; such as India, China, and Middle East to European western styles through colonisation. Each ethnic group has their own distinct dances; makes total dances in Indonesia are more than 3000 Indonesian original dances. However, the dances of Indonesia can be divided into three eras; the Prehistoric Era, the Hindu/Buddhist Era and the Era of Islam, and into two genres; court dance and folk dance.

There is a continuum in the traditional dances depicting episodes from the Ramayana and Mahabharata from India, ranging through Thailand, all the way to Bali. There is a marked difference, though, between the highly stylised dances of the courts of Yogyakarta and Surakarta and their popular variations. While the court dances are promoted and even performed internationally, the popular forms of dance art and drama must largely be discovered locally.

During the last few years, Saman from Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam has become rather popular and is often portrayed on TV. Reog Ponorogo is also a dance that originated from the district Ponorogo, East Java, which is a visualisation of the legendary story Wengker kingdom and the kingdom of Kediri.

A popular line dance called Poco-poco was originated in Indonesia and also popular in Malaysia, but at early April 2011 Malaysian Islamic clerics banned the poco-poco dance for Muslims due to them believing it is traditionally a Christian dance and that its steps make the sign of the cross.[3]

Drama and theatre[edit]

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Pandava and Krishna in an act of the wayang wong performance.
Wayang, the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese shadow puppet theatre shows display several mythological legends such as Ramayana and Mahabharata, and many more. Wayang Orang is Javanese traditional dance drama based on wayang stories. Various Balinese dance drama also can be included within traditional form of Indonesian drama. Another form of local drama is Javanese Ludruk and Ketoprak, Sundanese Sandiwara, and Betawi Lenong. All of these drama incorporated humor and jest, often involving audiences in their performance.

Randai is a folk theatre tradition of the Minangkabau people of West Sumatra, usually performed for traditional ceremonies and festivals. It incorporates music, singing, dance, drama and the silat martial art, with performances often based on semi-historical Minangkabau legends and love story.

Bangsawan is a Malay folk theatre found in the province of Riau.

Modern performing art also developed in Indonesia with their distinct style of drama. Notable theatre, dance, and drama troupe such as Teater Koma are gain popularity in Indonesia as their drama often portray social and political satire of Indonesian society.

Martial arts[edit]

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Main articles: Indonesian martial arts and Pencak Silat

A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts, takes place in Jakarta
The art of Pencak Silat was created and firstly developed in the islands of Java and Sumatra. It is an art for survival and practised throughout Indonesian archipelago. Centuries of tribal wars in Indonesian history had shaped silat as it was used by the ancient warriors of Indonesia. Silat was used to determine the rank and position of warriors in old Indonesian kingdoms.

Contacts with Indians and Chinese has further enriched silat. Silat reached areas beyond Indonesia mainly through diaspora of Indonesian people. People from various regions like Aceh, Minangkabau, Riau, Bugis, Makassar, Java, Banjar, etc. moved into and settled in Malay Peninsula and other islands. They brought silat and passed it down to their descendants. The Indonesian of half-Dutch descent are also credited as the first to brought the art into Europe.

Silat was used by Indonesian independence fighters during their struggle against the Dutch colonial rule. Unfortunately after Indonesia achieving their independence, silat became less popular among Indonesian youth compare to foreign martial arts like Karate and Taekwondo. This probably because silat was not taught openly and only passed down among blood relatives, the other reason is the lack of media portrayal of the art.

Efforts have been made to introduce and reintroduce the beauty of silat to Indonesian youth and the world. Exhibitions and promotions by individuals as well as state-sponsored groups helped the growing of silat's popularity, particularly in Europe and United States. Indonesian 2009 Silat movie Merantau is one of Indonesian efforts to introduce silat to international scene.

Another martial art from Indonesia is Tarung Derajat. It is a modern combat system created by Haji Ahmad Drajat based on his experience as a street fighter. Tarung Drajat has been acknowledge as a national sport by KONI in 1998 and is now used by Indonesian Army as part of their basic training.

Traditional visual arts[edit]
See also: Indonesian art
See also: List of Indonesian painters

Kenyah mural painting in Long Nawang, East Kalimantan
What Indonesian painting before the 19th century are mostly restricted to the decorative arts, considered to be a religious and spiritual activity, comparable to the pre-1400 European art. Artists' names are anonymous, since the individual human creator was seen as far less important than their creation to honour the deities or spirits. Some examples are the Kenyah decorative art, based on endemic natural motifs such as ferns and hornbills, found decorating the walls of Kenyah long houses. Other notable traditional art is the geometric Toraja wood carvings. Balinese painting are initially the narrative images to depict scenes of Balinese legends and religious scripts. The classical Balinese paintings are often decorating the lontar manuscripts and also the ceilings of temples pavilion.

Under the influence of the Dutch colonial power, a trend toward Western-style painting emerged in the 19th century. In the Netherlands, the term "Indonesian Painting" is applied to the paintings produced by Dutch or other foreign artists who lived and worked in the former Netherlands-Indies. The most famous indigenous 19th century Indonesian painter is Raden Saleh (1807–1877), the first indigenous artist to study in Europe. His art is heavily influenced by Romanticism.[4] In the 1920s Walter Spies settled in Bali, he is often credited with attracting the attention of Western cultural figures to Balinese culture and art. His works has somehow influenced Balinese artists and painters. Today Bali has one of the most vivid and richest painting tradition in Indonesia.

The Arrest of Pangeran Diponegoro by Raden Saleh
The 1920s to 1940s were a time of growing nationalism in Indonesia. The previous period of romanticism movement was not seen as a purely Indonesian movement and did not develop. Painters began to see the natural world for inspiration. Some examples of Indonesian painter during this period are the Balinese Ida Bagus Made and the realist Basuki Abdullah. The Indonesian Painters Association (Persatuan Ahli-Ahli Gambar Indonesia or PERSAGI, 1938–1942) was formed during this period. PERSAGI established a contemporary art philosophy that saw art works as reflections of the artist’s individual or personal view as well as an expression of national cultural thoughts.

From the 1940s on, artists started to mix Western techniques with Southeast Asian imagery and content. Painters that rooted in the revolutionary movement of the World War and the post-World War period started to appear during this period, such as Sudjojono, Affandi, and Hendra.[5]

During the 1960s, new elements were added when abstract expressionism and Islamic art began to be absorbed by the art community. Also during this period, group of painters that are more concerned about the reality of Indonesian society began to appear, taking inspiration from the social problem such as division between the rich and the poor, pollution, and deforestation. The national identity of Indonesia was stressed by these painters through the use of a realistic, documentary style. During the Sukarno period this socially-engaged art was officially promoted, but after 1965 it lost popularity due to its presumed communist tendencies.[6]

Three art academies offer extensive formal training in visual art: Bandung Institute of Technology founded in 1947; the Akademi Seni Rupa Indonesia (Indonesian Fine Arts Academy) or ASRI, now known as ISI, in Yogyakarta was inaugurated in 1950; and the Institut Kesenian Jakarta (Jakarta Arts Institute) or IKJ, was opened in 1970.


Relief sculpture from the Borobudur temple
Indonesia has a long history of stone, bronze and Iron Ages arts. The megalithic sculptures can be found in numerous archaeological sites in Sumatra, Java to Sulawesi. The native Indonesians tribes have their own distinct tribal sculpture styles, usually created to depict ancestors, deities and animals. The pre-Hindu-Buddhist and pre-Islamic sculptures can be traced in the artworks of indigenous Indonesian tribes. The most notable sculptures are those of Asmat wooden sculpture of Papua, the Dayak wooden mask and sculpture, the ancestral wooden statue of Toraja, also the totem-like sculpture of Batak and Nias tribe.

The stone sculpture artform particularly flourished in 8th-to-10th-century Java and Bali, which demonstrate the influences of Hindu-Buddhist culture, both as stand-alone works of art and also incorporated into temples. Most notable sculpture of classical Hindu-Buddhist era of Indonesia are the hundreds of meters of relief and hundreds of stone buddhas at the temple of Borobudur in central Java. Approximately two miles of exquisite relief sculpture tell the story of the life of Buddha and illustrate his teachings. The temple was originally home to 504 statues of the seated Buddha. This site, as with others in central Java, show a clear Indian influence. The examples of notable Indonesian Hindu-Buddhist sculptures are; the statues of Hindu deities; Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma, Durga, Ganesha and Agastya enthroned in rooms of Prambanan temples, the Vishnu mounting Garuda statue of king Airlangga, the exquisite statue of Eastern Javanese Prajnaparamita and 3.7 meters tall Dvarapala dated from Singhasari period, and also the grand statue of Bhairava Adityawarman discovered in Sumatra. Today, the Hindu-Buddhist style stone sculptures are reproduced in villages in Muntilan near Borobudur also in Trowulan the former capital site of Majapahit in East Java, and Bali, and sold as garden or pool ornament statues for homes, offices and hotels.

Today in Indonesia, the richest, most elaborate and vivid wooden sculpture and wood carving traditions can be found in Bali and Jepara, Central Java. Balinese handicrafts such as sculptures, masks, and other carving artworks are popular souvenir for tourist that have visited Indonesia. On the other hand, the Jepara wood carving are famous for its elaborately carved wooden furnitures, folding screens also pelaminan gebyok (wedding throne with carved background).

Main article: Indonesian architecture

Roofed kori agung gate at the Bali Pavilion of Taman Mini Indonesia Indah

Rumah Gadang (or traditional spired roof house) of the Minangkabau people
For centuries, the Indonesian vernacular architecture has shaped settlements in Indonesia which commonly took form of timber structures built on stilts dominated by large roof. The most dominant foreign influences on Indonesian architecture were Indian, although European influences have been particularly strong since the 19th century and modern architecture in Indonesia is international in scope.

As in much of South East Asia, traditional vernacular architecture in Indonesia are built on stilts, with the significant exceptions of Java and Bali. Notable stilt houses are those of the Dayak people in Borneo, the Rumah Gadang of the Minangkabau people in western Sumatra, the Rumah Bolon of the Batak people in northern Sumatra, and the Tongkonan of the Toraja people in Sulawesi. Oversized saddle roofs with large eaves, such as the homes of the Batak and the tongkonan of Toraja, are often bigger than the house they shelter. The fronts of Torajan houses are frequently decorated with buffalo horns, stacked one above another, as an indication of status. The outside walls also frequently feature decorative reliefs.

The 8th-century Borobudur temple near Yogyakarta is the largest Buddhist temple in the world, and is notable for incorporating about 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues into its structure, telling the story of the life of the Buddha. As the visitor ascends through the eight levels of the temple, the story unfolds, the final three levels simply containing stupas and statues of the Buddha. The building is said to incorporate a map of the Buddhist cosmos and is a masterful fusion of the didactic narrative relief, spiritual symbolism, monumental design and the serene meditative environs. The whole monument itself resembles a giant stupa, but seen from above it forms a mandala.[7]

The nearby 9th-century temple complex at Prambanan contains some of the best preserved examples of Hindu temple architecture in Java. The temple complex comprises eight main shrines, surrounded by 224 smaller shrines. The Indian influence on the site is clear, not only in the style of the monument, but also in the reliefs featuring scenes from the Ramayana which adorn the outer walls of the main temples, and in the votive statuary found within.


Minangkabau songket, an intricately ptterned textile found in Indonesia
Several Indonesian islands are famous for their batik, ikat and songket cloth. Once on the brink of disappearing, batik and later ikat, found a new lease on life when former President Suharto promoted wearing batik shirts on official occasions. In addition to the traditional patterns with their special meanings, used for particular occasions, batik designs have become creative and diverse over the last few years.

Other noted Indonesian crafts are Jepara wood carving[8] and Kris. In 2005, UNESCO recognised Kris as one of Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity from Indonesia.[9]

Main article: Indonesian literature
Pramoedya Ananta Toer was Indonesia's most internationally celebrated author, having won the Magsaysay Award as well as being considered for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Other important figures include the late Chairil Anwar, a poet and member of the "Generation 45" group of authors who were active in the Indonesian independence movement. Tight information controls during Suharto's presidency suppressed new writing, especially because of its ability to agitate for social reform.

In the book Max Havelaar, Dutch author Multatuli criticised the Dutch treatment of the Indonesians, which gained him international attention.

Modern Indonesian authors include Seno Gumira Adjidarma, Andrea Hirata, Habiburrahman El Shirazy, Ayu Utami, Gus tf Sakai, Eka Kurniawan, Ratih Kumala, Dee, Oka Rusmini. Some of their works have translated to other languages. Amazint

There is a long tradition in Indonesia, particularly among ethnically Malay populations, of extemporary, interactive, oral composition of poetry. These poems are referred to as pantun. Contemporary Indonesian poets include among others, Sutardji Calzoum Bachri, Rendra, Taufiq Ismail, Afrizal Malna,[10] Binhad Nurrohmat, Joko Pinurbo, Sapardi Djoko Damono.

Recreation and sports[edit]
Main article: Sport in Indonesia

Taufik Hidayat, 2004 Olympic gold medalist in badminton men's singles
Many traditional games are still preserved and popular in Indonesia, although western culture has influenced some parts of them. Among three hundred officially recognised Indonesian cultures, there are many kinds of traditional games: cockfighting in Bali, annual bull races in Madura, and stone jumping in Nias. Stone jumping involves leaping over a stone wall about up to 1.5 m high and was originally used to train warriors. Pencak Silat is another popular form of sport, which was influenced by Asian culture as a whole. Another form of national sport is sepak takraw.[11] The rules are similar to volleyball: to keep the rattan ball in the air with the players' feet.

Popular modern sports in Indonesia played at the international level include football (soccer), badminton and basketball.[12] Badminton is one of Indonesia's most successful sports. Indonesian badminton athletes have played in Indonesia Open Badminton Championship, All England Open Badminton Championships, and many international events, including the Summer Olympics and won Olympic gold medals since badminton was made an Olympic sport in 1992. Rudy Hartono is a legendary Indonesian badminton player, who won All England titles seven times in a row (1968 through 1974). Indonesian teams have won the Thomas Cup (men's world team championship) thirteen of the twenty-two times that it has been contested since they entered the series in 1957.[13] In the internationally popular sport of football (soccer), Indonesian teams have been active in the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).

Sporting events in Indonesia are organised by the Indonesian National Sport Committee (KONI). The Committee, along with the government of Indonesia, have set a National Sports Day on every 9 September with "Sports for All" as the motto. Indonesia has hosted the Southeast Asian Games four times, in 1979, 1987, 1997 and 2011, and won overall champion title in each of these years. As of 2011, Indonesia has won champion titles 10 times overall out of 18 SEA Games it has attended since debuted in 1977. The country also hosted the 1993 Asian Basketball Championship.[14]

Main article: Indonesian cuisine

In 2011 an online poll by 35,000 people held by CNN International chose Rendang as the number one dish of their 'World’s 50 Most Delicious Foods' list.

Nasi goreng (fried rice), one of the most popular Indonesian dishes.

Soto and Satay, together with Nasi Goreng are considered as Indonesian national dishes.
The cuisine of indonesia has been influenced by Chinese culture and Indian culture, as well as by Western culture. However, in return, Indonesian cuisine has also contributed to the cuisines of neighbouring countries, notably Malaysia and Singapore, where Padang or Minangkabau cuisine from West Sumatra is very popular. Also Satay (Sate in Indonesian), which originated from Java, Madura, and Sumatra, has gained popularity as a street vendor food from Singapore to Thailand. In the 15th century, both the Portuguese and Arab traders arrived in Indonesia with the intention of trading for pepper and other spices. During the colonial era, immigrants from many countries arrived in Indonesia and brought different cultures as well as cuisines.

Most native Indonesians eat rice as the main dish, with a wide range of vegetables and meat as side dishes. However, in some parts of the country, such as Irian Jaya and Ambon, the majority of the people eat sago (a type of tapioca) and sweet potato.[15]

The most important aspect of modern Indonesian cuisine is that food must be halal, conforming to Islamic food laws. Haraam, the opposite of halal, includes pork and alcohol. However, in some regions where there is a significant non-Muslim population, non-halal foods are also commonly served.

Indonesian dishes are usually spicy, using a wide range of chili peppers and spices. The most popular dishes include nasi goreng (fried rice), Satay, Nasi Padang (a dish of Minangkabau) and soy-based dishes, such as tofu and tempe. A unique characteristic of some Indonesian food is the application of spicy peanut sauce in their dishes, as a dressing for Gado-gado or Karedok (Indonesian style salad), or for seasoning grilled chicken satay. Another unique aspect of Indonesian cuisine is using terasi or belacan, a pungent shrimp paste in dishes of sambal oelek (hot pungent chili sauce). The sprinkling of fried shallots also gives a unique crisp texture to some Indonesian dishes.

Chinese and Indian cultures have influenced the serving of food and the types of spices used. It is very common to find Chinese food in Indonesia such as Dim Sum and noodles, and Indian cuisine such as Tandoori chicken. In addition, Western culture has significantly contributed to the extensive range of dishes. However, the dishes have been transformed to suit Indonesian tastes. For example, steaks are usually served with rice. Popular fast foods such as Kentucky Fried Chicken are served with rice instead of bread and sambal (spicy sauce) instead of ketchup. Some Indonesian foods have been adopted by the Dutch, like Indonesian rice table or 'rijsttafel'.

Popular media[edit]
Main article: Cinema of Indonesia
The largest chain of cinemas in Indonesia is 21Cineplex, which has cinemas spread throughout twenty-four cities on the major islands of Indonesia. Many smaller independent cinemas also exist.

In the 1980s, the film industry in Indonesia was at its peak, and dominated the cinemas in Indonesia with movies that have retained a high reputation, such as Catatan Si Boy and Blok M and actors like Onky Alexander, Meriam Bellina, Nike Ardilla and Paramitha Rusady.[16] The film Tjoet Nja' Dhien (1988) winning 9 Citra Awards at the 1988 Indonesian Film Festival.[17] It was also the first Indonesian movie chosen for screening at the Cannes Film Festival,[17] where it was awarded Best International Film in 1989.[18] However, the film industry failed to continue its successes in the 1990s, when the number of movies produced decreased significantly, from 115 movies in 1990 to just 37 in 1993.[19] As a result, most movies produced in the 1990s contained adult themes. In addition, movies from Hollywood and Hong Kong started to dominate Indonesian cinema. The industry started to recover in the late 1990s, with the rise of independent directors and many new movies produced, such as Garin Nugroho's Cinta dalam Sepotong Roti, Riri Riza and Mira Lesmana's Petualangan Sherina and Arisan! by Nia Dinata.[16] Another form of recovery is the re-establishment of the Indonesian Film Festival (FFI), inactive for twelve years, and the creation of the Jakarta International Film Festival. Daun di Atas Bantal (1998) received The Best Movie award in the 1998 Asia Pacific Film Festival in Taipei.[20]

Main article: Television in Indonesia
The state radio network Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) was founded in 1945. It consists of a network of regional stations located in all thirty-three provinces of the archipelago. In most cities and large towns there are also many commercial stations. Since 2006, several digital radio stations have been based in Jakarta and Surabaya, using Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) and Hybrid HD-Radio.[21][22][23]

Religion and philosophy[edit]
Main articles: Religion in Indonesia and Indonesian philosophy
Islam is Indonesia's main religion, with almost 88% of Indonesians declared Muslim according to the 2000 census,[24] making Indonesia the most populous Muslim-majority nation in the world. The remaining population is 9% Christian (of which roughly two-thirds are Protestant with the remainder mainly Catholic, and a large minority Charismatic, 2% Hindu and 1% Buddhist.

The Pancasila, the statement of two principles which encapsulate the ideology of the Indonesian state, affirms that "The state shall be based on the belief in the one and only God".

Tourism In Indonesia

Tourism in Indonesia is an important component of the Indonesian economy as well as a significant source of its foreign exchange revenues. The vast country of sprawling archipelago has much to offer; from natural beauty, historical heritage to cultural diversity. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council, the direct contribution of travel and tourism to Indonesia's GDP in 2014 was IDR 325,467 billion (US$26,162 million) constituting 3.2% of the total GDP. By 2019, the Indonesian government wants to have doubled this figure to 8 percent of GDP and the number of visitors needs to double to about 20 million.[1] The tourism sector ranked as the 4th largest among goods and services export sectors.[2]

Indonesia possess rich and colourful culture, such as Barong dance performance in Bali.
In year 2015, 9.73 million international visitors entered Indonesia, staying in hotels for an average of 7.5 nights and spending an average of US$1,142 per person during their visit, or US$152.22 per person per day.[1] Singapore, Malaysia, China, Australia, and Japan are the top five sources of visitors to Indonesia.

The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2015 ranks Indonesia 50th out of 141 countries overall. The report ranks the price competitiveness of Indonesia's tourism sector the 3rd out of 141 countries. It mentions that Indonesia has quite good travel and tourism policy and enabling conditions (ranked 9th). The country also scores quite good on natural and cultural resources (ranked 17th). However, the country scored rather low in infrastructure sub-index (ranked 75th), as some aspect of tourist service infrastructure are underdeveloped.[3]

In 2016, the government was reported to be investing more in tourism development by attracting more foreign investors. The government has given priority to 10 destinations as follows: Borobudur, Central Java; Mandalika, West Nusa Tenggara; Labuan Bajo, East Nusa Tenggara; Bromo-Tengger-Semeru, East Java; Thousand Islands, Jakarta; Toba, North Sumatra; Wakatobi, Southeast Sulawesi; Tanjung Lesung, Banten; Morotai, North Maluku; and Tanjung Kelayang, Belitung. As quoted in the Jakarta Post, the government is aiming for 275 million trips by domestic tourists by end of 2019.[4] The government has also secured commitments from potential investors, totalling US$70 million in the areas of building accommodation, marina and ecotourism facilities in 3 of the 10 areas.[4]

Wakatobi National Park, Southeast Sulawesi.
Contents  [hide]
1 Overview
2 Branding
3 Statistics
3.1 Tourist arrivals in Indonesia by nationality (2000-2015)
4 Historical context
5 Nature tourism
5.1 Dive sites
5.2 Surf breaks
5.3 National parks
5.4 Volcanoes
6 Cultural tourism
6.1 Ancient temples
6.2 Islamic heritage
6.3 Colonial heritage
6.4 Urban tourism
6.5 Gastronomy tourism
7 Sex tourism
8 International tourist arrivals
8.1 International airports
9 Visa regulations
9.1 Visa free
9.2 Visa on Arrival (VoA)
9.2.1 Entry points
9.3 Visa before arrival
9.4 Non-ordinary passports
10 Indonesian tourism campaign
10.1 Visit Indonesia Year 1991
10.2 Visit Indonesia Year 2008
10.3 Visit Indonesia Year 2009
10.4 Visit Indonesia Year 2010
10.5 Wonderful Indonesia (since 2011)
10.6 Pesona Indonesia (since 2014)
11 Destination Management Organization
12 Challenges to the tourism industry
12.1 Terrorism
12.2 Unconducive policies
12.3 Health issues
12.4 Regional conflicts
13 Guide books
14 Gallery
15 See also
16 References
17 Further reading
18 External links

Borobudur is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.[5]
Both nature and culture are major components of Indonesian tourism. The natural heritage can boast a unique combination of a tropical climate, a vast archipelago of 17,508 islands, 6,000 of them being inhabited,[6] the second longest shoreline in the world (54,716 km) after Canada.[7] It is the worlds largest and most populous country situated only on islands.[8] The beaches in Bali, diving sites in Bunaken, Mount Bromo in East Java, Lake Toba and various national parks in Sumatra are just a few examples of popular scenic destinations. These natural attractions are complemented by a rich cultural heritage that reflects Indonesia's dynamic history and ethnic diversity. One fact that exemplifies this richness is that 719 living languages are used across the archipelago.[9] The ancient Prambanan and Borobudur temples, Toraja, Yogyakarta, Minangkabau, and of course Bali, with its many Hindu festivities, are some of the popular destinations for cultural tourism.

Tourism in Indonesia is currently overseen by the Indonesian Ministry of Tourism.[10] International tourism campaigns have been focusing largely on its tropical destinations with white sand beaches, blue sky, and cultural attractions. Beach resorts and hotels have been developed in some popular tourist destinations, especially Bali island as the primary destination. At the same time, the integration of cultural affairs and tourism under the scope of the same ministry shows that cultural tourism is considered an integral part of Indonesia's tourism industry, and conversely, that tourism is used to promote and preserve the cultural heritage.

Some of the challenges Indonesia's tourism industry has to face include the development of infrastructure to support tourism across the sprawling archipelago, incursions of the industry into local traditions (adat), and the impact of tourism development on the life of local people. The tourism industry in Indonesia has also faced setbacks due to problems related to security. Since 2002, warnings have been issued by some countries over terrorist threats and ethnic as well as religious conflicts in some areas, significantly reducing the number of foreign visitors for a few years. However, the number of international tourists has bounced back positively since 2007, and reached a new record in 2008[11][12] and then made a new record every year and in 2014 set at 9,435,411 foreign tourists.[13]

In 2015, based on World Economic Forum survey, Indonesia got Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index score 4.04 and rank at number 50,[14] (up from number 70 in 2013, number 74 in 2011 and number 81 in 2009) from 141 countries.[15][16] Aspects that need to be improved to move up the rank ladder are; tourism and ICT infrastructures, health and hygiene, environmental sustainability, and affinity for travel and tourism.


Garuda Indonesia aeroplane with Visit Indonesia logo
In late January 2011 Culture and Tourism Minister Jero Wacik announced that "Wonderful Indonesia" would replace the previous "Visit Indonesia Year" branding used by the nation's official tourism promotional campaigns, although the logo of stylised curves Garuda remain.[17] The minister announced that in 2010, foreign tourists visiting Indonesia touched 7 million and made predictions of 7.7 million in 2011. He was reported as describing the new branding as reflecting "the country's beautiful nature, unique culture, varied food, hospitable people and price competitiveness. "We expect each tourist will spend around US$1,100 and with an optimistic target of 7.7 million arrivals, we will get $8.3 billion," from this. The Culture and Tourism Minister added that 50 percent of the revenue would be generated from about 600 meetings, conventions and exhibitions that were expected to take place in various places throughout the country 2011. He further added in the announcements of January 2011 that his ministry would be promoting the country's attractions under the eco-cultural banner.[18]

The ten most popular tourist destinations in Indonesia recorded by Central Statistics Agency (BPS) are Bali, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Jakarta, North Sumatra, Lampung, South Sulawesi, South Sumatra, Banten and West Sumatra (which would make it 11 provinces today due to Banten previously having been a part of West Java).[25]

As with most countries, domestic tourists are by far the largest market segment. The biggest movement of domestic tourists is during the annual Eid ul-Fitr, locally known as lebaran. During this period, which is a two-week holiday after the month of fasting during Ramadan, many city-dwelling Muslim Indonesians visit relatives in their home towns. Intercity traffic is at its peak and often an additional surcharge is applied during this time.

Over the five years up to 2006, attention has been focused on generating more domestic tourism. Competition amongst budget airlines has increased the number of domestic air travellers throughout the country. Recently, the Ministry of Labour legislated to create long weekends by combining public holidays that fall close to weekends, except in the case of important religious holidays. During these long weekends, most hotels in popular destinations are fully booked.

Since 2000, on average, there have been five million foreign tourists each year (see table), who spend an average of US$100 per day. With an average visit duration of 9–12 days, Indonesia gains US$4.6 billion of foreign exchange income annually.[11] This makes tourism Indonesia's third most important non-oil–gas source of foreign revenue, after timber and textile products.[6]

After toppled Japan two years ago, China as the world's biggest tourism spenders now toppled Australia to become number three with 30.42 percent increase year-on-year (y-o-y), while totally foreign tourists growth by 10.6 percent y-o-y set to more than 2.9 million. The top countries of origin Q1 2014 data is come from the Asia-Pacific region, with Singapore (15.7 percent), Malaysia (14.0), China (11.0), Australia and Japan among the top countries of origin.[26] The United Kingdom, France, and Germany are the largest sources of European visitors.[27] Although Dutch visitors are at least in part keen to explore the historical relationships, many European visitors are seeking the tropical weather at the beaches in Bali.

Around 59% of all visitors are travelling to Indonesia for holiday, while 38% for business purposes.[28]

In 2012, according to the World Travel & Tourism Council travel and tourism made a total contribution of 8.9% of GDP and supported 8% of total employment in Indonesia.[28]

Historical context[edit]

Hotel des Indes in Batavia, 1910
Indonesia seems to have been a travel destination for centuries. Some panels in Borobudur bas-reliefs depicted drink vendors, warungs (small restaurant), tavern or lodging where people drinking and dancing. The historical record about travel in Indonesia can be found since 14th century.[29] The Nagarakretagama reported about King Hayam Wuruk's royal travel throughout Majapahit realm in East Java with large numbers of carriages, accompanied by nobles, royal courtiers, officials and servants.[29] Although it seems as stately affair, for some instances the king's journey is somewhat resembles modern day tour, as the king visited numbers of interesting places; from temples such as Palah and Jajawa, to enjoying mountain scenery, having bath in petirtaan (bathing pools) and beach. The 15th-century travelogue of Bujangga Manik, a travelling Hindu scholar-priest from Pakuan Pajajaran, reported about his travel around Java and Bali. Although his travel was a pilgrimage one; visiting temples and sacred places in Java and Bali, sometimes he behaves like a modern-day tourist, such as sitting around fanning his body while enjoying beautiful mountain scenery in Puncak area, look upon Gede volcano that he describes as the highest point around Pakuan Pajajaran (capital of Sunda kingdom).[30]

Fort Rotterdam in Makassar
Initially the tourism, service and hospitality sector in Dutch East Indies were developed to cater the lodging, entertainment and leisure needs of domestic visitors, especially the wealthy Dutch plantation owners and merchants during their stay in the city. In the 19th century, colonial heritage hotels equipped with dance halls, live music and fine dining restaurants were established in Dutch East Indies urban areas, such as Hotel des Indes (est. 1829) in Batavia (now Jakarta), Savoy Homann Hotel (est. 1871) in Bandung, Hotel Oranje (est. 1910) in Surabaya, and Hotel De Boer in Medan. Since the 19th century Dutch East Indies has attracted visitors from The Netherlands.[29] The first national tourism bureau was the Vereeeging Toeristen Verkeer, established by Governor General of Dutch East Indies in early 20th century, and shared their head office in Batavia with Koninklijke Nederlansch Indische Luchtfahrt Maatschapijj (part of KLM) that began to fly from Amsterdam to Batavia in 1929.[29] In 1913, Vereeneging Touristen Verkeer wrote a guide book about tourism places in the Indies. Since then Bali become known to international tourist with foreign tourist arrivals rose for more than 100% in 1927.[29] Much of the international tourism of the 1920s and 1930s was by international visitors on oceanic cruises. The 1930s did see a modest but significant influx of mainly European tourists and longer term stayers to Bali. Many came for the blossoming arts scene in the Ubud area, which was as much a two-way exchange between the Balinese and outsiders as it was an internal phenomenon.[31]

Tourism more or less disappeared during World War II, Indonesian National Revolution and in the early years of the Sukarno era. On 1 July 1947, the government of Republic of Indonesia tried to revive tourism sector in Indonesia by establishing HONET (Hotel National & Tourism) led by R. Tjitpo Ruslan. This new national tourism authority took over many of the colonial heritage hotels in Java and renamed them all "Hotel Merdeka". After Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference in 1949, this tourism authority changed its name to NV HORNET.[29] In 1952 the President formed the Inter-Departement Committee on Tourism Affairs which is responsible for reestablishing Indonesia as the world's tourism destination.[32] National pride and identity in the late 1950s and early 1960s was incorporated into the monumentalism of Sukarno in Jakarta— and this included the development of grand multi-storied international standard hotels and beach resorts, such as Hotel Indonesia in Jakarta (est. 1962), Ambarrukmo Hotel in Yogyakarta (est. 1965), Samudra Beach Hotel in Pelabuhan Ratu beach West Java (est. 1966), and Inna Grand Bali Beach Hotel in Bali (est. 1966). The political and economic instability of the mid-1960s saw tourism decline radically again. Bali, and in particular the small village of Kuta, was however, in the 1960s, an important stopover on the overland hippy trail between Australia and Europe, and a "secret" untouched surf spot.[33]

In the early-to-mid-1970s, high standard hotels and tourist facilities began to appear in Jakarta and Bali. After the completion of Borobudur restoration project in 1982, Yogyakarta become a popular tourist destination in Indonesia after Bali, mostly attracted to this 8th-century Buddhist monument, surrounding ancient Javanese temples and Yogyakarta Sultanate palace. From this period to the end of the Suharto era, governmental policies of the tourism industry included an array of regulations and developments to encourage increasing numbers of international tourists to both visit Indonesia and stay longer.

Nature tourism[edit]
Main articles: Fauna of Indonesia and Flora of Indonesia

Sianok canyon in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra
Indonesia has a well-preserved, natural ecosystem with rainforests that stretch over about 57% of Indonesia's land (225 million acres), approximately 2% of which are mangrove systems.[34][35] One reason why the natural ecosystem in Indonesia is still well-preserved is because only 6,000 islands out of 17,000 are permanently inhabited.[36] Forests on Sumatra and Java are examples of popular tourist destinations. Moreover, Indonesia has one of longest coastlines in the world, measuring 54,716 kilometres (33,999 mi),[37] with a number of beaches and island resorts, such as those in southern Bali, Lombok,[38] Bintan and Nias Island.[39] However, most of the well-preserved beaches are those in more isolated and less developed areas, such as Karimunjawa, the Togian Islands, and the Banda Islands.

Dive sites[edit]

Raja Ampat, one of the world's richest marine biodiversity
With more than 17,508 islands, Indonesia presents ample diving opportunities. With 20% of the world's coral reefs, over 3,000 different species of fish and 600 coral species, deep water trenches, volcanic sea mounts, World War II wrecks, and an endless variety of macro life, scuba diving in Indonesia is both excellent and inexpensive.[40] Bunaken National Marine Park, at the northern tip of Sulawesi, claims to have seven times more genera of coral than Hawaii,[41] and has more than 70% of all the known fish species of the Indo-Western Pacific.[42] According to Conservation International, marine surveys suggest that the marine life diversity in the Raja Ampat area is the highest recorded on Earth.[43] Moreover, there are over 3,500 species living in Indonesian waters, including sharks, dolphins, manta rays, turtles, morays, cuttlefish, octopus and scorpionfish, compared to 1,500 on the Great Barrier Reef and 600 in the Red Sea.[44] Tulamben Bay in Bali boasts the wreck of the 120 metres (390 ft) US Army commissioned transport vessel, the Liberty.[45] Other popular dive sites on Bali are at Candidasa and Menjangan. Across the Badung Strait from Bali, there are several popular dive sites on Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Penida. Lombok's three Gilis (Gili Air, Gili Meno and Gili Trawangan) are popular as is Bangka. Some of the most famous diving sites in Indonesia are also the most difficult to reach, with places like Biak off the coast of Papua and the Alor Archipelago among the popular, more remote, destinations for divers.

Surf breaks[edit]

Surfing in Kuta beach, Bali
Surfing is also a popular water activity in Indonesia and the sites are recognised as world class.[46] The well-known sports are mostly located on the southern, Indian Ocean side of Indonesia, for example, the large oceanic surf breaks on southern Java. However, the north coast does not receive the same surf from the Java Sea. Surf breaks can be found all the way along Sumatra, down to Nusa Tenggara, including Aceh, Bali, Banten, Java, Lombok, the Mentawai Islands, and Sumbawa. Although Indonesia has many world-class surfing spots, the majority of surfers are came from abroad, especially Australia and United States. However, the seed of local surfing enthusiast began develop in Bali and West Java's Pelabuhan Ratu and Pangandaran beach, mostly came from nearby cities of Jakarta and Bandung. On Bali, there are about 33 surf spots, from West Bali to East Bali including four on the offshore island of Nusa Lembongan. In Sumbawa, Hu'u and Lakey Beach in Cempi Bay are popular surfing spots among surfing enthusiast. Sumatra is the second island, with the most number of surf spots, with 18 altogether. The common time for surfing is around May to September with the trade winds blowing from east to south-east. From October to April, winds tend to come from the west to north-west, so the east coast breaks get the offshore winds.[citation needed]

Two well-known surf breaks in Indonesia are the G-Land in the Bay of Grajagan, East Java, and Lagundri Bay at the southern end of Nias island. G-Land was first identified in 1972, when a surfer saw the break from the window of a plane. Since 6 to 8-foot (Hawaiian scale) waves were discovered by surfers at Lagundri Bay in 1975, the island has become famous for surfing worldwide.[citation needed]

National parks[edit]
Main article: List of national parks of Indonesia

Komodo dragon at Komodo National Park
Bogor Botanical Gardens established in 1817, and Cibodas Botanical Gardens established in 1862, are two among the oldest botanical gardens in Asia. With rich collections of tropical plants, these gardens is the centre of botanical research as well as tourism attraction since colonial era.

There are 50 national parks in Indonesia, of which six are World Heritage listed. The largest national parks in Sumatra are the 9,500-square-kilometre (3,700 sq mi) Gunung Leuser National Park, the 13,750-square-kilometre (5,310 sq mi) Kerinci Seblat National Park and the 3,568-square-kilometre (1,378 sq mi) Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, all three recognised as Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra on the UNESCO World Heritage list. Other national parks on the list are Lorentz National Park in Papua, Komodo National Park in the Lesser Sunda Islands, and Ujung Kulon National Park in the west of Java.

To be noticed, different national parks offer different biodiversity, as the natural habitat in Indonesia is divided into two areas by the Wallace line. The Wallacea biogeographical distinction means the western part of Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan) have the same flora and fauna characteristics as the Asian continent, whilst the remaining eastern part of Indonesia has similarity with the Australian continent.[38]

Many native species such as Sumatran elephants, Sumatran tigers, Sumatran rhinoceros, Javan rhinoceros and orangutans are listed as endangered or critically endangered, and the remaining populations are found in national parks and other conservation areas. Sumatran orangutan can be visited in the Bukit Lawang conservation area, while the Bornean orangutan can be visited in Tanjung Puting national park, Central Kalimantan. The world's largest flower, rafflesia arnoldi, and the tallest flower, titan arum, can be found in Sumatra.

The east side of the Wallacea line offers the most remarkable, rarest, and exotic animals on earth.[47] Birds-of-paradise, locally known as cendrawasih, are plumed birds that can be found among other fauna in Papua New Guinea. The largest bird in Papua is the flightless cassowary. One species of lizard, the Komodo dragon can easily be found on Komodo, located in the Nusa Tenggara lesser islands region. Besides Komodo island, this endangered species can also be found on the islands of Rinca, Padar and Flores.[48]

Main article: List of volcanoes in Indonesia

Mount Bromo and Semeru in East Java.
Hiking and camping in the mountains are popular adventure activities. Some mountains contain ridge rivers, offering rafting activity. Though volcanic mountains can be dangerous, they have become major tourist destinations. Several tourists have died on the slopes of Mount Rinjani, Indonesia's second highest volcano and a popular destination for climbers visiting Lombok in eastern Indonesia. Popular active volcanoes are the 2,329-metre (7,641 ft) high Mount Bromo in the East Java province with its scenic volcanic desert around the crater, the upturned boat shaped Tangkuban Perahu and the volcanic crater Kawah Putih, north and south of Bandung respectively and both with drive-in access up to the crater, the most active volcano in Java, Mount Merapi near Yogyakarta, and the legendary Krakatau with its new caldera known as anak krakatau (the child of Krakatau). Gede Pangrango volcano in West Java is also a popular hiking destination, especially among domestic hikers.

In Sumbawa, Mount Tambora with its historical massive volcanic eruption back in 1815 that produced massive caldera also had gained attention among hikers. In neighbouring island of Flores, the three-coloured volcanic crater-lake of Kelimutu is also hailed as one of Indonesia's natural wonder and had attracted visitors worldwide. Puncak Jaya in the Lorentz National Park, the highest mountain in Indonesia and one of the few mountains with ice caps at the (tropical) equator[49][50] offers the opportunity of rock climbing. In Sumatra, there are the remains of a supervolcano eruption that have created the landscape of Lake Toba close to Medan in North Sumatra.

Cultural tourism[edit]
Main article: Culture of Indonesia

Bali is famous for its rich culture, Hindu festivals and dances

Papuan tribal war dance from Yapen.
Indonesia consists of 300 ethnic groups, spread over a 1.8 million km2 area of 6,000 inhabited islands.[6] This creates a cultural diversity, further compounded by Hindu, Buddhist, Islamic and European colonialist influences. In Bali, where most of Indonesian Hindus live, cultural and religious festivals with Balinese dance-drama performances in Balinese temples are major attractions to foreign tourists.

Despite foreign influences, a diverse array of indigenous traditional cultures is still evident in Indonesia. The indigenous ethnic group of Toraja in South Sulawesi, which still has strong animistic beliefs, offers a unique cultural tradition, especially during funeral rituals. The Minangkabau ethnic group retain a unique matrilineal culture, despite being devoted Muslims. Other indigenous ethnic groups include the Asmat and Dani in Papua, the Dayak in Kalimantan and the Mentawai in Sumatra, where traditional rituals are still observed.

Cultural tourism also plays a significant part in Yogyakarta, a special province in Indonesia known as centre of classical Javanese fine art and culture.[51] The rise and fall of Buddhist, Hindu, and Islamic kingdoms in Central Java has transformed Yogyakarta into a melting pot of Indonesian culture.

Most major Indonesian cities have their state-owned museums, although most are in modest display. The most complete and comprehensive museum that displaying Indonesian culture and history spanned from prehistoric to colonial era is National Museum of Indonesia located in Jakarta.

For Indonesian and foreign visitors unable to visit all Indonesian provinces, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah in East Jakarta provides a comprehensive microcosm of Indonesian culture. Established in 1975 by Tien Suharto, this park displaying museums, separate pavilions with the collections of Indonesian architecture, clothing, dances and traditions all depicted impeccably.

Ancient temples[edit]
Main article: Candi of Indonesia

Stupas on upper terraces of Borobudur temple in Central Java
From the 4th century until the 15th century, Hinduism and Buddhism shaped the culture of Indonesia. Kingdoms rise and fall, such as Medang Kingdom, Srivijaya, Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit. Along the Indonesian classical history of Hindu-Buddhist era, they produced some temples and monuments called candi. The best-preserved Buddhist shrine, which was built during the Sailendra dynasty in the 8th century, is Borobudur temple in Central Java. A giant stone mandala stepped pyramid adorned with bell-shaped stupas, richly adorned with bas-reliefs telling the stories and teachings of Buddha.

A few kilometres to the southeast is the Prambanan complex, the largest Hindu temple in Indonesia built during the second Mataram dynasty.[38] The Prambanan temple is dedicated to Trimurti; Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma, three highest gods in Hinduism. Both the Borobudur and the Prambanan temple compounds have been listed in the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1991. Both temple are the largest and the most popular, conveniently accessible from Yogyakarta, the heartland of Javanese culture. The Ramayana Javanese dance is performed routinely on the stage near Prambanan temple, provides the visitors the glimpse of Javanese classical culture.

Ramayana Wayang wong Javanese dance performance at Prambanan temple
In and around Yogyakarta, the ancient Javanese archaeology and temple enthusiast may still discover numerous ancient temples, accessible by car or motorcycle. Although not as grand and popular as Borobudur and Prambanan, these smaller temples provides glimpse of ancient culture and the intricate details of ancient Java temple architecture. Mendut and Pawon temples are located in Kedu Plain near Borobudur, while Ratu Boko, Sewu, Lumbung, Plaosan, Kalasan, and Sari are located in Prambanan Plain near Prambanan temple.

The temples of East Java dated from the era of Singhasari and Majapahit; mostly located in Trowulan archaeological site, and also scattered around Blitar and Malang. Although not as grand and popular as the temples of Central Java, the East Javanese temples is also interesting destination for candi and Indonesian ancient history enthusiast. East Javanese temples such as Wringin Lawang, Brahu, Bajang Ratu, and Candi Tikus in Trowulan archaeological site. Jawi temple near Pandaan, south of Surabaya, Penataran temple in Blitar, Kidal temple and Singhasari temple near Malang.

Most major Indonesian archaeological sites are equipped with museums; such as Samudra Raksa Museum and Karmawibhangga Museum in Borobudur, Prambanan museum in Prambanan temple compounds, and Trowulan Museum located in former Majapahit capital of Trowulan archaeological site. Some of archaeological discoveries are also displayed in municipal museums, such as Sonobudoyo Museum in Yogyakarta and Radyapustaka Museum in Surakarta, and of course the Indonesian National Museum in Jakarta.

Sumatra also home of several ancient Buddhist temples mosty linked to Srivijaya kingdom, such as Muaro Jambi in Jambi province, Muara Takus in Riau and Biaro Bahal in North Sumatra. Sumatran temples however, are not as elaborated and as spectacular as its Javanese counterpart, and subsequently less popular. The location is rural, quite far from large cities, so renting car to visit these sites is advisable since public transportation to the location is scarce.

Islamic heritage[edit]

Baiturrahman Grand Mosque
Islam has also contributed greatly to the cultural society in Indonesia. As of 2006, 88% of Indonesia's recorded population were Muslim.[52] Islamic culture is prominent in Sumatra, and a few of the remaining sultanate palaces can be seen in Medan and Tanjung Pinang.

The Islamic heritage tourism is also popular, especially among Indonesian Muslims and Muslims from neighbouring countries such as Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei that shared common Southeast Asian Islamic heritage. The activity usually linked with Islamic ziyarat pilgrimage to historical Islamic sites, such as historical mosques and tombs of venerated Islamic figures. However, for visitors in Islamic sites, either local or foreign, Muslim or non-Muslim, the rules of conduct and dress modesty is applied, such as removing the footwear while entering mosques or makam (tombs), visitor should not entering the site wearing shorts (sarong usually lent near the entrance to cover lower torso of the visitors), and wearing kerudung (head-dress covering) for women.

In Aceh the Baiturrahman Grand Mosque and tombs of Aceh Sultanate kings is popular destination, while in Medan the Medan Great Mosque and Maimun Palace is also major Islamic heritage destination. Most of Indonesian major cities have their own historical or monumental Masjid Agung (Grand Mosque) that become city's landmark as well as tourism attraction. Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta, the Indonesian national mosque and the largest in Southeast Asia is Jakarta's major landmark as well as tourist attraction. In Java the ziyarat pilgrimage is usually linked to historically important Islamic figures of Wali Sanga (Nine Saints), they are important because of their historic role in the Spread of Islam in Indonesia. Their tombs and mosques scaterred along Java's north coast towns, such as Demak, Kudus, Cirebon, Gresik, to Ampel in Surabaya. The 15th-century Agung Demak Mosque hailed as the first mosque established in Java. Menara Kudus Mosque is notable for incorporating Majapahit Hindu-Javanese architecture. The tomb of Sunan Gunungjati near Cirebon, is also the important ziyarat site in West Java.

The heritage tourism might also focussed on the era of 17th- to 19th-century royal Javanese courts of Yogyakarta Sultanate, Surakarta Sunanate and Mangkunegaran.

Colonial heritage[edit]

Former Batavia Stadhuis now Jakarta History Museum in Kota
The heritage tourism is focussed on specific interest on Indonesian history, such as colonial architectural heritage of Dutch East Indies era in Indonesia. The colonial heritage tourism mostly attracted visitors from the Netherlands that share historical ties with Indonesia, as well as Indonesian or foreign colonial history enthusiast.

The activities among others are visiting museums, churches, forts and historical colonial buildings, as well as spend some nights in colonial heritage hotels. The popular heritage tourism attractions is Kota – the centre of old Jakarta, with its Maritime Museum, Kota Intan drawbridge, Gereja Sion, Wayang Museum, Stadhuis Batavia, Fine Art and Ceramic Museum, Toko Merah, Bank Indonesia Museum, Bank Mandiri Museum, Jakarta Kota Station, and Glodok (Jakarta Chinatown). In the old ports of Sunda Kelapa in Jakarta and Paotere in Makassar the tall masted pinisi ship still sailed. The Jakarta Cathedral with neo-gothic architecture in Central Jakarta also attracted architecture enthusiast.

Bandung historical avenue around Asia Afrika and Braga Street displays rich collections of Indies and Art deco architecture from early 20th century. Several hotels such as Savoy Homann in Bandung and Hotel Majapahit in Surabaya are colonial heritage hotels suitable for those whom interested in Dutch East Indies colonial history. The VOC forts can be found in Yogyakarta, Makassar, Bengkulu and Ambon. The colonial buildings might also be found in old town parts of Indonesian cities, such as Semarang, Surabaya, Malang, Medan, and Sawahlunto.

Urban tourism[edit]

Bandung with its boutiques, distribution stores and factory outlets is well known by locals and foreign visitors as shopping heaven in Indonesia
Urban tourism activities includes shopping, sightseeing in big cities, or enjoying modern amusement parks, resorts, spas, nightlife and entertainment. To some extent urban tourism might also involving municipal culture and heritage tourism, such as visits to city museums or parts of colonial old town. Ancol Dreamland with Dunia Fantasi theme park and Atlantis Water Adventure is Jakarta's answer to Disneyland-style amusement park and water park. Several similar theme parks also developed in other cities, such as Trans Studio Makassar and Trans Studio Bandung. The nation's capital, Jakarta, offers many places for shopping. Mal Kelapa Gading, the biggest one with 130 square kilometres (50 sq mi), Plaza Senayan, Senayan City, Grand Indonesia, EX, and Plaza Indonesia are some of the shopping malls in the city. Next to high-end shopping centres with branded products, Indonesia is also a popular destination for handicraft shopping in the region. Certain Indonesian traditional crafts such as batik, songket, ikat weaving, embroidery, wooden statue and fashion products are popular souvenirs for visitors. Indonesian textile and fashion products are known for its good value; good quality with relatively cheap and reasonable price. Bandung is a popular shopping destination for fashion products among Malaysians and Singaporeans.[53]

Another popular tourist activity is golfing, a favourite sport among the upper class Indonesians and foreigners. Some notable golf courses in Jakarta are the Cengkareng Golf Club, located in the airport complex, and Pondok Indah Golf and Country Club. Bali has many shopping centres, for instance, the Kuta shopping centre and the Galeria Nusa Dua. Nightlife of Indonesia is also popular among foreigners, especially in the big cities like Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, Manado, Denpasar and Medan.[54]

Gastronomy tourism[edit]
Main article: Cuisine of Indonesia

Example of Balinese cuisine
Indonesia has rich and diverse culinary traditions, and might be considered as one of the richest and the best in the world; such as rendang that recently voted as the number one dish of CNN International 'World's 50 Most Delicious Foods' list.[55] Many regional cuisines exist, often based upon indigenous culture and foreign influences.[56] Indonesian cuisine varies greatly by region and has many different influences.[56][57][58] From succulent coconut-milk and curry rich Minangkabau cuisine to Oceanian seafood meal of Papuan and Ambonese cuisine. Embarked on a journey through Indonesian cuisine is as exciting as enjoying the diversity of Indonesian culture, as some kind of dishes might have myriad variations of different recipes across archipelago. Some popular Indonesian dishes such as nasi goreng,[59] sate,[60] and soto[61] are ubiquitous in the country and have numerous regional variations. These dishes are considered as Indonesian national dishes.

Eating establishments in Indonesia are available from the modest street-side cart vendors, to the luxury fine-dining restaurants. Most of malls and shopping centres in Indonesian major cities usually have an entire floor dedicated as a food courts, where one could samples rich variety of Indonesian cuisine, and some Indonesian cities have their own signature dishes. Such as Mie Aceh, Padang's rendang, Palembang's pempek, Jakarta's soto betawi and gado-gado, Bandung's siomay and batagor, Yogyakarta's gudeg, Solo's tongseng, Semarang's lumpia, Surabaya's rawon, Madura's satay, Balinese nasi campur and babi guling, Makassar's konro, Manado's tinutuan, to Chinese Indonesian mie goreng. Some exhibitions, fairs and events often also incorporated eating experiences. Such as Jakarta Fair that offer local delicacies as well as food products from various corners of Indonesia, or Jakarta Fashion & Food Festival (JFFF) that feature food and fashion.

Sex tourism[edit]
See also: Prostitution in Indonesia
International sex tourism and child sex tourism remains an issue, especially on the islands of Batam and Karimun and in major urban centres and tourist destinations across the country, including Bali and Riau Islands. Sex tourism is nothing new in Southeast Asia. Unlike neighbouring Thailand with its visible red light districts, Indonesia do not market their sex tourism in that way, yet prostitution is there. In Indonesia prostitution is illegal and interpreted as a "crime against decency and morality" and against the law.[62] In practice prostitution is quite widespread, tolerated and somewhat regulated, mostly illegally or underground in discotheques, massage parlours, and karaoke rooms,[63] and also visible on certain streets. It is estimated 40,000 to 70,000 Indonesian children are being exploited in prostitution within the country.[64] Prostitution is conducted by both female and male, Bali for example is notorious for its 'Kuta Cowboys', local gigolos targeting foreign female tourists.[65]

International tourist arrivals[edit]
International airports[edit]
Main article: List of airports in Indonesia

Sultan Hasanuddin International Airport in Makassar.
Each of the larger Indonesian islands have at least one international airport. The biggest airport in Indonesia, Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, is located in Tangerang Regency, Banten. There are five more international airports on Java, Adisumarmo International Airport (IATA: SOC) in Solo, Central Java, Juanda International Airport (IATA: SUB) in Surabaya, East Java, Achmad Yani International Airport (IATA: SRG) in Semarang, Central Java, Husein Sastranegara International Airport (IATA: BDO) in Bandung, West Java and Adisucipto International Airport (IATA: JOG) in Yogyakarta. On Kalimantan, there is one international airport and there are two on Sumatra such as Minangkabau International Airport in Padang, West Sumatra. Bali, which is part of the Nusa Tenggara Islands, has the Ngurah Rai International Airport (IATA: DPS). Selaparang Airport (IATA: AMI) located on the west coast of Lombok was closed to flight operations on 30 September 2011. The new Lombok International Airport opened on 1 October 2011.[66][67][68] Selaparang Airport will either be redeveloped or may possibly be retained for development as Indonesia's first General Aviation hub airport. Sam Ratulangi International Airport, also known as Manado International Airport, is located in North Sulawesi, 13 kilometres northeast of Manado. The airport is named after the Minahasan educator and independence hero Sam Ratulangi. The Manado airport is also a hub to remote areas of Eastern Indonesia, including Halmahera with both Kao airport as well as Galela, Ambon, Tidore, and Irian Jaya or West Papua. There are also direct flights to Manado International Airport (IATA: MDC) from Singapore daily with Silk Air a wholly owned subsidiary of Singapore Airlines.

There are three major tourists international airports arrivals, i.e. Ngurah Rai International Airport (IATA: DPS) with 2.54 million, Soekarno-Hatta Airport (IATA: CGK) with 1.82 million and Hang Nadim Airport (IATA: BTH), also known as Hang Nadim International Airport, in Batam, Riau Islands with 1.007 million from 7.002 million international tourists recorded as arriving in Indonesia during 2010.[69]

Visa regulations[edit]
Visa free[edit]
Tourists holding passport from the following 169 countries [70] and territories are eligible to enter and remain in Indonesia without a visa for 30 days.[71][72] The visa free facility does not allow the change into other permits or visa extension.[73][74]

# - Passport holders who wish to enter Indonesia for the purpose of governmental duties, education, social and cultural reasons, tourism, business, journalistic or transit can do so without visa through all air, sea or land crossing points.
Passport holders from all other visa exempt countries can enter Indonesia without a visa for tourism purposes only and must enter through the following ports of entry.[75]
Hang Nadim Airport
Juanda International Airport
Kualanamu International Airport
Ngurah Rai International Airport
Soekarno–Hatta International Airport
Bandar Bentan Telani Lagoi (Tanjung Uban)
Bandar Seri Udana Lobam (Tanjung Uban)
Batam Center (Batam)
Citra Tri Tunas (Batam)
Marina Teluk Senimba (Batam)
Nongsa Terminal Bahari (Batam)
Sekupang (Batam)
Sri Bintan Pura (Tanjung Pinang)
Tanjung Balai Karimun
Visa on Arrival (VoA)[edit]
Nationals of the following 4 countries may apply for a Visa on Arrival for a length of stay of 30 days by paying US$35 at 20 airports, 23 seaports and the Entikong land crossing.[76][77][78][79][80]

Nationals from all countries except Angola, Azerbaijan, Dominican Republic, Ghana, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Papua New Guinea, Seychelles, Tanzania, Vatican City and Venezuela that are eligible for visa-free entry for tourism purposes are still able to obtain a visa on arrival when entering via a port of entry with visa on arrival facilities other than 5 airports and 9 seaports specified for the visa-free entry facility (see above).

Entry points[edit]
External image
 Map of entry points with Visa on Arrival facility
List of entry points with Visa on Arrival facility.[77][81]

Banda Aceh, Aceh - Sultan Iskandar Muda Airport (BTJ)
Medan, North Sumatra - Kuala Namu Airport (KNO)
Pekanbaru, Riau - Sultan Syarif Kasim II Airport (PKU)
Padang, West Sumatra - Minangkabau International Airport (PDG)
Batam, Riau Islands - Hang Nadim International Airport (BTH)
Palembang, South Sumatra - Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Airport (PLM)
Jakarta - Soekarno–Hatta International Airport (CGK)
Jakarta - Halim Perdanakusuma Airport (HLP)
Surabaya, East Java - Juanda International Airport (SUB)
Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta - Adisucipto International Airport (JOG)
Surakarta/Solo, Central Java - Adisumarmo International Airport (SOC)
Bandung, West Java - Husein Sastranegara International Airport (BDO)
Semarang, Central Java - Achmad Yani International Airport (SRG)
Lesser Sunda Islands
Denpasar, Bali - Ngurah Rai International Airport (DPS)
Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara - Lombok International Airport (LOP)
Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara - El Tari Airport (KOE)
Makassar, South Sulawesi - Hasanuddin International Airport (UPG)
Manado, North Sulawesi - Sam Ratulangi International Airport (MDC)
Balikpapan, East Kalimantan - Sultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman Airport (BPN)
Pontianak, West Kalimantan - Supadio Airport (PNK)
Riau Islands
Batam - Sekupang, Citra Tri Tunas, Nongsa Terminal Bahari, Marina Teluk Senimba, Batam Center
Tanjung Uban - Bandar Bentan Telani Lagoi, Bandar Seri Udana Lobam
Tanjung Pinang - Sri Bintan Pura
Tanjung Balai Karimun - Tanjung Balai Karimun
North Sumatra
Medan - Belawan
Sibolga - Sibolga
Dumai - Yos Sudarso
West Sumatra
Padang - Teluk Bayur
Jakarta - Tanjung Priok
Central Java
Semarang - Tanjung Mas
Badung - Benoa
Karangasem - Padang Bai
North Sulawesi
Bitung - Bitung
South Sulawesi
Makassar - Soekarno-Hatta
Pare-Pare - Pare-Pare
East Nusa Tenggara
Maumere - Maumere
Kupang - Tenau
Jayapura - Jayapura
Border crossing
Entikong, West Kalimantan - Entikong Border Crossing
Visa before arrival[edit]
Nationals who are not eligible for visa free or VOA need to apply the visa at an Indonesian embassy or consulate.

Nationals from 10 following countries require an approval from Immigration Office in Indonesia before travelling for Business, Tourist and Social Visits purposes (this policy is called Indonesian Calling Visa):[82]

 North Korea
Non-ordinary passports[edit]

Indonesian tourism campaign[edit]
See also: Visit Indonesia Year and Wonderful Indonesia

The rhino was the mascot of Visit Indonesia Year, 1991
The official Indonesian government authority that is responsible for tourism sector in Indonesia is the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Indonesia. Several campaign to promote Indonesian tourism has been launched, either by government or private sectors through various medias; printed media, television and internet.

Visit Indonesia Year 1991[edit]
Learning from neighbouring countries success, such as Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia, that successfully gained benefit and exploited their tourism sector through intensive promotions, in the early 1990s the Indonesian government launched integrated efforts to promote Indonesian tourism worldwide. The first integrated campaign was coined as Visit Indonesia Year, the first year was the Visit Indonesia Year 1991.[83]

Visit Indonesia Year 2008[edit]
The Indonesian Ministry of Culture and Tourism, declared 2008 as a Visit Indonesia Year.[84] Visit Indonesia Year 2008 was officially launched on 26 December 2007.[85] The figure of Visit Indonesia Year 2008 branding took the concept of Garuda Pancasila as the Indonesian way of life. The 5 components of pancasila were represented by 5 different coloured lines and symbolised the Indonesian Unity in Diversity. The targeted number was 7 million. Visit Indonesia Year 2008 was also commemorating 100 years of Indonesia's national awakening in 1908.

Visit Indonesia Year 2009[edit]

Kecak dance performance as a tourist attraction in Bali.
Tourism Indonesia Mart & Expo (TIME) 2009 was held at Santosa Villas & Resort in Senggigi on the west coast of Lombok NTB. Entering its 16th years of conduct, TIME 2009 was organised by the Indonesian Tourism Promotion Board (ITPB) and received the support of a wide number of tourism participants in Indonesia. TIME 2009 attracted 127 Buyers from 25 countries. The top five buyers were from Korea, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, the United States, and the Netherlands. TIME 2009 also attracted a total of 250 delegates of Sellers from 97 companies of Indonesia occupying 84 booths at the Exhibition. Sellers came from 15 provinces dominated by West Nusa Tenggara, Jakarta, Bali, Central Java, and East Kalimantan as top five Sellers. The percentage of Sellers based on industry was Hotel, Resort & Spa (75%), NTO (10%), Tour Operator/Travel Agent (7%), Adventure/Activity Holiday (3%), Airline (1.5%), and Others (Hotel Management, Tourism Board, Tourism Organization & Travel Portal 8.5%). Amidst current global financial crisis, TIME 2009 booked an estimated of transaction of US$17.48 million, or increasing 15% from the previous TIME held in Makassar, South Sulawesi in 2008.[86]

Visit Indonesia Year 2010[edit]
Following the hosting on the island of Lombok in 2009 the event was again hosted in Lombok-Sumbawa on 12–15 October 2010 at Santosa Villas & Resort in Senggigi on the west coast of Lombok. Entering its 16th years, TIME is organised by the Indonesian Tourism Promotion Board (ITPB) and supported by a wide number of tourism participants in Indonesia. TIME 2010 was supported by the travel and tourism industry in Indonesia, including the Ministry of Culture & Tourism, the Provincial Government of West Nusa Tenggara, West Nusa Tenggara Culture & Tourism Office, Lombok Sumbawa Promo, Garuda Indonesia as Official Airlines, other supporting airlines, Indonesia National Air Carriers Association (INACA), Board of Airline Representatives Indonesia (BARINDO), Association of Indonesian Tours & Travel Agencies (ASITA), Indonesia Hotels and Restaurant Association (PHRI), Indonesian Conference and Convention Association (INCCA), Pacto Convex as the event organiser, supported by national and international media.[87] Lombok and Sumbawa in West Nusa Tenggara have set a target of wooing one million tourists to visit the islands by 2012.[88]

Wonderful Indonesia (since 2011)[edit]

Cultural performance such as traditional dances is one of tourism attraction.
Wonderful Indonesia has been the slogan since January 2011 of an international marketing campaign directed by the Indonesian Ministry of Culture and Tourism to promote tourism.[89] The campaign replaced the previous "Visit Indonesia Year" campaign which had been used since 1991.[90] The "Wonderful Indonesia" concept highlights Indonesia's "wonderful" nature, cultures, people, food, and value for the money.[91][92] After the campaign was launched, Indonesia reported an increase of foreign visitors; from 7,002,944 in 2010, to 7,649,731 in 2011; and 8,044,462 in 2012.[93]

Pesona Indonesia (since 2014)[edit]
In December 2014, the new Minister of Tourism, Mr. Arief Yahya launched the new brand Pesona Indonesia to target domestic tourism market. Both Wonderful Indonesia and Pesona Indonesia have the same Garuda logo. The minister hope that both brands will be a single tourism identity for Indonesia.[94]

Destination Management Organization[edit]
One program of Central Government is Destination Management Organization (DMO) which will involve all stake holders including the owners. The DMO target for 2010–2014 are 15 areas: Sabang, Toba, Jakarta Old City Area, Pangandaran, Borobudur, Tanjung Puting, Bromo-Tengger-Semeru, Batur Bali Area, Rinjani, Derawan Islands, Toraja, Bunaken, Wakatobi, Raja Ampat, Komodo-Kelimutu-Flores.[95]

Challenges to the tourism industry[edit]
Travel Warnings
Australia[96] 2006-08-21 All Indonesia Terrorist threats
UK[97] 2006-08-21 All Indonesia Terrorist threats
Central Sulawesi, Aceh Regional conflicts
United States[98] 2015-01-03 Surabaya Terrorist threats
Further information: Terrorism in Indonesia
The initial terrorist attack was the 2002 Bali bombing. This was a major blow to Indonesia's tourism industry. A series of travel warnings were issued by a number of countries. Subsequently, the rate of tourism in Bali decreased by 32%.[99] After this 2002 attack, the following 3 years also suffered 3 major terrorist bombings: the 2003 Marriott Hotel bombing, the 2004 Australian embassy bombing in Jakarta, and a second bombing in Bali. Fortunately in 2008, no major terrorist attack occurred since 2005, and the United States Government lifted its warning against travel to Indonesia.[100] In 2006, 227,000 Australians visited Indonesia, and in 2007, this tourist rate continued to rise with a recorded 314,000 tourists entering Indonesia.[100]

In 2008, the US government lifted their travel warning on Indonesia.[101]

Unconducive policies[edit]
Most of major tourist destinations in Indonesia, especially Bali, Yogyakarta, Batam, Bandung and Jakarta, has a rather relaxed modern cosmopolitan social outlook, which is quite conducive for tourism industry. However, certain regional provinces might not have that kind of luxury, and tends to be conservative. Next to national laws, several Indonesian provinces has applied regional autonomous law, which some of them based on Islamic sharia law, such as Aceh province, and the city of Palembang. Extra caution must be demonstrated by visitors to Aceh, since the province has a rather strict Islamic-based law, enforced by Islamic religious police called Wilayatul Hisbah.[102] Thus, some certain normally private matters, such as beach clothing (esp, bikini),[103] modesty issue, party and the consumption of alcohol, to a display of affections between couple, are discouraged and frowned upon, and might led to a legal problem.[104] Carefulness and discretion is highly required, especially for unmarried couple and LGBT travellers.[105]

Another unconducive policy is the legal restriction against alcohol, pushed forward by Islamist parties and organizations in the country. As the result, the alcohol tax in Indonesia is among the highest in the world, which caused an unusually high price for alcoholic beverages. This policy is quite harmful for bar, club and restaurant industry in Indonesia.[106] Another unconducive policy is a rather strict policy on nightlife; local authority sometimes launched a raid on clubs, karaoke and discotheque in a pretext to curb down drugs and substance abuse in these places, which might be inconvenient for visitors.[107]

Health issues[edit]
An outbreak of bird flu throughout the country has affected the numbers of foreign visitors. As of 2006, the outbreak had killed at least 46 people since 2005, making Indonesia the country with the highest death-toll from the recent epidemic.[108] However, since the disease has not yet been proven to mutate into a form that can transfer from human to human, the US embassy, for example, has not yet issued a travel warning regarding the outbreak.[109]

Regional conflicts[edit]
Another major threat to the tourism industry are sectarian and separatist conflicts in Indonesia. Papua is still affected by Papuan separatism, while Maluku and Central Sulawesi have suffered in recent years from serious sectarian conflicts. Conversely, decades of separatism-related violence in Aceh ended in 2005 with the signing of a peace agreement between the Indonesia Government and the Free Aceh Movement.[110]

Guide books[edit]
Guide books and travel accounts with details of the country and people have had a long history - some books from the 19th century and early 20th century being classics with description of places that were perceived as things to see. Both private authors and government publications (such as the 1920s Come to Java books produced in Batavia by the government tourist bureau of the time) have been made each decade through to the present. There were restrictions to tourism during World War II and the mid-to-late 1960s - other than those two periods - travel accounts and guide books have been produced regularly. James Rush's and Adrian Vickers' texts mentioned below are excellent introductions to the range of writing that has been created.

The most popular Guide book on Indonesia in English from the 1970s to the 1990s was Bill Dalton's Indonesia Handbook, while from the 1990s onward, the Lonely Planet's edition Indonesia has gone to its tenth edition in 2010. Many other guide books have also been produced in English and other languages.

Additionally, major international newspapers regularly have travel sections and stories about Indonesia.[38] The journalists of tourism in Indonesia joined in the Indonesian Tourism Journalist Association (ITJA),[111] Indonesian journalists active enough to write a variety of tourism information about the uniqueness found in this country.